Journal of Applied Materials Engineering

(ISSN: 2658-1744) Open Access Journal
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Journal of Applied Materials Engineering (JAME) is no longer published on JAMS (MDPI publishing platform) as of 15.10.2021. Articles remain hosted at jame.jams.pub by courtesy of JAMS and upon agreement with the journal owner until the publications are transferred to a new website.

1 Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland;
2 Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopianska 73, 30-418 Krakow, Poland
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(4), 3; doi: 10.35995/jame60040010
Received: 30 Dec 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 15 May 2021
In recent years, the demand for products made of biodegradable or partially biodegradable materials has been increasing. This is mainly due to the ever-increasing amount of waste in landfills, but also to the problem of post-production waste management. This problem also concerns waste from the casting process of sands made on the basis of furfuryl resin, as well as residues from the regeneration process of these sands. The article presents the issues related to the methodology of research on the biodegradation process both in the natural environment and methods conducted in laboratory conditions. The preliminary results of the research on the biodegradation process in the aquatic environment, to which the dusts from mechanical regeneration of moulding sand were subjected, indicate the directions of further research and work in the field of selection of components of moulding sand with biodegradable properties. These tests should be carried out primarily in terms of determining the minimum and maximum amount of the addition of a biodegradable component to the moulding sand. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopiańska 73 Str., 30-418 Kraków, Poland; (M.W.); (T.P.D.)
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(4); doi: 10.35995/jame60040009
Received: 24 Jan 2021 / Revised: 31 Mar 2021 / Accepted: 7 Apr 2021 / Published: 12 Apr 2021
In this work, results of an investigation of the microstructure evolution in Haynes® 230® alloy are presented. The morphological and chemical compositions of the chosen microstructure’s constituents, such as the primary and secondary carbides, were analyzed based on tests in the temperature range 700–800 °C for 1000–3000 h. The prediction of phase evolution within the microstructure was proposed based on the analysis of mutual replacement of carbide-forming elements at the carbide/matrix interface. Based on the results, some complementary markers were considered to describe Haynes® 230® microstructure evolution. Qualitative markers, i.e., defined morphological features, were related to the shape and distribution of microstructure constituents. The study also used quantitative markers related to the local chemical compositions of carbide particles, determined as the ratio of the concentrations of carbide-forming elements Crc/Wc, Crc/CrM and Wc/WM. Microstructure maps created on the basis of these complementary markers for the successive annealing stages reflected the course of its morphological evolution. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz—Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str., 30-418 Kraków, Poland; (J.K.); (M.A.)
2 Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland;
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(4); doi: 10.35995/jame60040008
Received: 11 Dec 2020 / Revised: 18 Mar 2021 / Accepted: 26 Mar 2021 / Published: 31 Mar 2021
The aim of the present work is to compare the properties of self-hardening moulding sands based on inorganic binders based on sodium silicate of different modules, geopolymer binders and phosphate binders and to prove they can be used in the ablation casting process. Ablation casting is a process in which, directly after pouring the liquid alloy, the mould is sprayed with water until it is completely eroded and a finished, cooled casting is obtained. The use of proecological water-dilutable binder makes it possible to recover the sand matrix after drying the suspension that remains after the process. Moulding sands were prepared on the basis of four inorganic binders available on the market. For each of the moulding sands the bending strength was tested after 1, 2, 4 and 24 h of hardening. Then, the masses with optimum bending strength were selected and subjected to gas emissivity tests. A thermal analysis of moulding sands selected for testing was also carried out in order to determine the loss of mass during annealing. The susceptibility of moulds to erosion under the influence of ablative medium was also assessed by measuring the time of mould erosion. Tests showed the possibility of using self-hardening moulding sands based on inorganic binders for the ablation casting process of aluminium-silicon alloys. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopiańska 73 Str., 30-418 Krakow, Poland;
2 Specodlew Sp. z o.o., Rotmistrza Witolda Pileckiego 3 Str., 32-050 Skawina, Poland; (W.M.); (P.T.); (Wł.M.); (P.G.); (A.D.)
3 Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Reymonta 25 Street, 30-059 Krakow, Poland; (Ł.R.); (W.Ma.)
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(2); doi: 10.35995/jame60020007
Received: 19 Jan 2021 / Revised: 16 Feb 2021 / Accepted: 18 Feb 2021 / Published: 23 Feb 2021
One of the research directions of this study is to determine the possibility of making precise, thin-walled castings from selected iron alloys. The scope of research work is aimed at determining the applicability of the casting process of selected iron alloys with the technology of wax pattern, for making precise castings with a wall thickness of less than 3 mm. The article presents the results of tests carried out for experimental castings with the shape of steps, characterized by different wall thicknesses: 1 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 25 mm. The castings were made of LH14, Gs42crMo4, L35H7MP2, LH26N9, 316L cast steel, and a new alloy marked “0”. The metal was smelted in an induction furnace with a capacity of 150 kg. The technology of ceramic shell mould used in the plant was used to make the experimental castings. Ceramic shell moulds were heated in a chamber furnace at a fixed temperature. The time of annealing the ceramic mould was constant in a ceramic form. The following parameters were variable during the tests: iron alloy, pouring temperature, and annealing temperature of the ceramic shell mould. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, ul. Zakopiańska 73, 30-418 Kraków, Poland
2 AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland; (K.C.); (P.A.); (K.M.)
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(2); doi: 10.35995/jame60020006
Received: 3 Jul 2020 / Revised: 4 Feb 2021 / Accepted: 16 Feb 2021 / Published: 19 Feb 2021
The aim of this work was to study the impact of various fabrication methods used to prepare high entropy alloys based on the AlFeMnNbNiTi system. Chemical composition was customized to ensure a solid solution structure with precipitation of the Laves phase. The three manufactured alloys were prepared by melting, but with the use of various input materials and different furnaces in protective atmospheres. After the melting process, heat treatment was carried out. Structures of obtained materials were analyzed by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Mechanical properties were represented by Vickers hardness. In this paper, impact of the use of low purity input materials is shown, as well as differences in structure resulting from the utilization of different melting furnaces. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopiańska 73, 30-418 Krakow, Poland; (P.P.); (P.K.); (M.P.); (K.B.)
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2021, 60(2); doi: 10.35995/jame60020005
Received: 26 Nov 2020 / Revised: 8 Jan 2021 / Accepted: 25 Jan 2021 / Published: 28 Jan 2021
This paper presents the technology of powder sintering by the spark plasma sintering method, also known as the field assisted sintering technique. The mechanisms, compared to other sintering techniques, advantages of this system, applied modifications and the history of the development of this technique are presented. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) uses uniaxial pressing and pulses of electric current. The direct flow of current through the sintered material allows high heating rates to be reached. This has a positive effect on material compaction and prevents the grain growth of sintered compact. The SPS mechanism is based on high-energy spark discharges. A low-voltage current pulse increases the kinetics of diffusion processes. The SPS temperature is up to 500 °C lower than the sintering temperature using conventional methods. The phenomena that occur during sintering with the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST)/SPS method give great results for consolidating all types of materials, including those which are nonconductive. This method is used, among others, in relation to metals, alloys and ceramics, including advanced and ultra-high-temperature ceramics. Due to the good results and universality of this method, in recent years it has been developed and often used in research institutions, but also in industry. Full article
1 Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, ul. Zakopiańska 73, 30-418 Kraków, Poland; (P.F.); (G.S.)
2 University of Silesia, Institute of Engineering Materials; ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41-500 Chorzów, Poland;
* Corresponding author:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2020, 60(2); doi: 10.35995/jame60020004
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 5 Oct 2020 / Accepted: 15 Oct 2020 / Published: 28 Oct 2020
The characteristics of abrasive tools (the type of grinding wheel, granulation of the super hard grain, type of structure, hardness, and the type of binder) contain information on the type of supporting body materials used (e.g., dural, ceramic, steel). In this work, diamond wheels were obtained on ceramic supporting bodies, containing a sintered mixture of white alumina 99A granulation F320, green silicon carbide 99A granulation F320, and binder Ba23 bis, together with modifiers. The mechanical properties (hardness, bending strength) of ceramic supporting bodies were tested. The structure of the phase boundary of the ceramic supporting body–abrasive grinding tool was analyzed on a BEC (backscattered electron composition) image by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). It was found that the hardness of the supporting body was slightly lower (70–75 HRB) than the diamond wheels (76–81 HRB). The bending strength of the supporting bodies was high (85 ±2 MPa). The BEC image from the scanning microscope did not show a sharp transition between the ceramic supporting body and the grinding wheel. Preliminary operational tests showed significant improvement in grinding wheel efficiency in comparison to diamond tools with the same ceramic binder on a duralumin supporting body during machining of G30 sintered carbide bush. Full article
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2020, 60(1), 1; doi: 10.35995/jame60010001
Received: 24 Mar 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 Jun 2020 / Published: 5 Jun 2020
In this paper, we present comparative investigations. We examined two kinds of ceramic materials used to produce bricks for isothermal cleading of the riser heads of middle and large steel castings. The ceramic materials were characterised by a low specific density (No. 1 − ρ = 0.854 g/cm3; No. 2 − ρ = 0.712 g/cm3). Thermal conductivity tests at a transient heat flow were performed by analysing the heating process of samples taken from the tested ceramic bricks, placed in a special mould in which metal was poured, and by recording the cooling process of the casting. The method proposed in this paper for the determination of samples’ thermo-physical properties is based on measuring the temperature field of the casting–sample system by means of thermocouples situated in various measuring points; it allows the direct investigation of cooling and solidification processes of metals in sand moulds. The heating process of the ceramic samples was analysed by measuring the temperature in five points situated at various distances from the heating surface (casting–sample surface). A large difference in the heating rates of samples of different materials was revealed in our comparative investigations, which indirectly indicated the materials’ heat abstraction ability from the casting surface. The ceramic material characterised by a lower density much slowly conducted heat and, therefore, appeared to be a better material for insulation cleading. At the depth of 40.0 mm, we measured differences in the heating degree corresponding to more than 190 °C. The aim of this comparative study was the evaluation of the suitability of porous insulating materials as cleading of riser heads used in the production of large steel castings. Full article
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2020, 60(1), 2; doi: 10.35995/jame60010002
Received: 31 Jan 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 25 May 2020 / Published: 31 May 2020
This paper presents the results of the processes of treating aluminum matrix casting materials with the addition of a ceramic phase. The matrix of the composite material was an Al-Si7 casting alloy with addition of 2 mass% Mg. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the form of silicon carbide ranged from 5 to 15 vol.%. Preliminary machining tests were carried out at the Mori Seiki NL2000SY turning and milling center. The cutting properties were evaluated during longitudinal turning. Cutting tests were carried out using tools made of polycrystalline diamond, regular boron nitride, and cemented carbides. The nature of VBB wear was checked in accordance with PN-ISO 3685:1996. The influence of machining parameters (cutting speed, feed, cutting depth) on the value of cutting tools temperature was determined. An analysis of the chip shaping mechanism during machining was performed at various cutting parameters. The tests were carried out using the FLIR A655 thermal imaging camera and the fast Phantom MIRO M310 fast camera. Cast composite materials were also subjected to the processes of waterjet cutting, EDM cutting, and EDM drilling (EDM electro discharge machining). Full article
J. Appl. Mater. Eng. 2020, 60(1), 3; doi: 10.35995/jame60010003
Received: 20 Jan 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 25 May 2020 / Published: 31 May 2020
Wear resistance, which is one of the main technological quality features of machine parts and tools, is determined by the properties of their surface layer. The demand for high-quality products forces manufacturers to use modern structural and tooling materials as well as efficient and cost-effective methods of their treatment. The paper presents the results of research on selected properties of tools made of tool steels and sintered carbides, as well as parts made of aluminum alloy subjected to selected surface treatment processes, such as mechanical (grinding, turning, milling, burnishing) and thermo-chemical (nitriding, sulfonitriding) processes, and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of coatings. The presented results, including analyses of the surface geometric structure, microstructure, and microhardness, as well as tribological and machining properties of selected materials, indicate the possibility of improving the functional quality of tools and machine parts. Full article

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